Overview

Staticcheck provides static analysis for Go programs, finding all kinds of bugs – crashes as well as incorrect behaviour.

Checks

Check Short description
SA1??? Various misuses of the standard library
SA1000 Invalid regular expression
SA1001 Invalid template
SA1002 Invalid format in time.Parse
SA1003 Unsupported argument to functions in encoding/binary
SA1004 Suspiciously small untyped constant in time.Sleep
SA1005 Invalid first argument to exec.Command
SA1006 Printf with dynamic first argument and no further arguments
SA1007 Invalid URL in net/url.Parse
SA1008 Non-canonical key in http.Header map
SA1010 (*regexp.Regexp).FindAll called with n == 0, which will always return zero results
SA1011 Various methods in the strings package expect valid UTF-8, but invalid input is provided
SA1012 A nil context.Context is being passed to a function, consider using context.TODO instead
SA1013 io.Seeker.Seek is being called with the whence constant as the first argument, but it should be the second
SA1014 Non-pointer value passed to Unmarshal or Decode
SA1015 Using time.Tick in a way that will leak. Consider using time.NewTicker, and only use time.Tick in tests, commands and endless functions
SA1016 Trapping a signal that cannot be trapped
SA1017 Channels used with signal.Notify should be buffered
SA1018 strings.Replace called with n == 0, which does nothing
SA1019 Using a deprecated function, variable, constant or field
SA1020 Using an invalid host:port pair with a net.Listen-related function
SA1021 Using bytes.Equal to compare two net.IP
SA1023 Modifying the buffer in an io.Writer implementation
SA1024 A string cutset contains duplicate characters, suggesting TrimPrefix or TrimSuffix should be used instead of TrimLeft or TrimRight
SA2??? Concurrency issues
SA2000 sync.WaitGroup.Add called inside the goroutine, leading to a race condition
SA2001 Empty critical section, did you mean to defer the unlock?
SA2002 Called testing.T.FailNow or SkipNow in a goroutine, which isn't allowed
SA2003 Deferred Lock right after locking, likely meant to defer Unlock instead
SA3??? Testing issues
SA3000 TestMain doesn't call os.Exit, hiding test failures
SA3001 Assigning to b.N in benchmarks distorts the results
SA4??? Code that isn't really doing anything
SA4000 Boolean expression has identical expressions on both sides
SA4001 &*x gets simplified to x, it does not copy x
SA4002 Comparing strings with known different sizes has predictable results
SA4003 Comparing unsigned values against negative values is pointless
SA4004 The loop exits unconditionally after one iteration
SA4005 Field assignment that will never be observed. Did you mean to use a pointer receiver?
SA4006 A value assigned to a variable is never read before being overwritten. Forgotten error check or dead code?
SA4008 The variable in the loop condition never changes, are you incrementing the wrong variable?
SA4009 A function argument is overwritten before its first use
SA4010 The result of append will never be observed anywhere
SA4011 Break statement with no effect. Did you mean to break out of an outer loop?
SA4012 Comparing a value against NaN even though no value is equal to NaN
SA4013 Negating a boolean twice (!!b) is the same as writing b. This is either redundant, or a typo.
SA4014 An if/else if chain has repeated conditions and no side-effects; if the condition didn't match the first time, it won't match the second time, either
SA4015 Calling functions like math.Ceil on floats converted from integers doesn't do anything useful
SA4016 Certain bitwise operations, such as x ^ 0, do not do anything useful
SA4017 A pure function's return value is discarded, making the call pointless
SA4018 Self-assignment of variables
SA4019 Multiple, identical build constraints in the same file
SA5??? Correctness issues
SA5000 Assignment to nil map
SA5001 Defering Close before checking for a possible error
SA5002 The empty for loop (for {}) spins and can block the scheduler
SA5003 Defers in infinite loops will never execute
SA5004 for { select { ... with an empty default branch spins
SA5005 The finalizer references the finalized object, preventing garbage collection
SA5006 Slice index out of bounds
SA5007 Infinite recursive call
SA6??? Performance issues
SA6000 Using regexp.Match or related in a loop, should use regexp.Compile
SA6001 Missing an optimization opportunity when indexing maps by byte slices
SA6002 Storing non-pointer values in sync.Pool allocates memory
SA6003 Converting a string to a slice of runes before ranging over it
SA9??? Dubious code constructs that have a high probability of being wrong
SA9001 defers in for range loops may not run when you expect them to
SA9002 Using a non-octal os.FileMode that looks like it was meant to be in octal.
SA9003 Empty body in an if or else branch

SA1005 – Invalid first argument to exec.Command

os/exec runs programs directly (using variants of the fork and exec system calls on Unix systems). This shouldn't be confused with running a command in a shell. The shell will allow for features such as input redirection, pipes, and general scripting. The shell is also responsible for splitting the user's input into a program name and its arguments. For example, the equivalent to ls / /tmp would be exec.Command("ls", "/", "/tmp").

If you want to run a command in a shell, consider using something like the following – but be aware that not all systems, particularly Windows, will have a /bin/sh program:

exec.Command("/bin/sh", "-c", "ls | grep Awesome")

SA1006 – Printf with dynamic first argument and no further arguments

Using fmt.Printf with a dynamic first argument can lead to unexpected output. The first argument is a format string, where certain character combinations have special meaning. If, for example, a user were to enter a string such as Interest rate: 5% and you printed it with fmt.Printf(s), it would lead to the following output: Interest rate: 5%!(NOVERB).

Similarly, forming the first parameyer via string concatenation with user input should be avoided for the same reason. When printing user input, either use a variant of fmt.Print, or use the %s Printf verb and pass the string as an argument.

SA1021 – Using bytes.Equal to compare two net.IP

A net.IP stores an IPv4 or IPv6 address as a slice of bytes. The length of the slice for an IPv4 address, however, can be either 4 or 16 bytes long, using different ways of representing IPv4 addresses. In order to correctly compare two net.IPs, the net.IP.Equal method should be used, as it takes both representations into account.

SA5005 – The finalizer references the finalized object, preventing garbage collection

A finalizer is a function associated with an object that runs when the garbage collector is ready to collect said object, that is when the object is no longer referenced by anything.

If the finalizer references the object, however, it will always remain as the final reference to that object, preventing the garbage collector from collecting the object. The finalizer will never run, and the object will never be collected, leading to a memory leak. That is why the finalizer should instead use its first argument to operate on the object. That way, the number of references can temporarily go to zero before the object is being passed to the finalizer.

SA5007 – Infinite recursive call

A function that calls itself recursively needs to have an exit condition. Otherwise it will recurse forever, until the system runs out of memory.

This issue can be caused by simple bugs such as forgetting adding an exit condition. It can also happen "on purpose". Some languages have tail call optimization which makes certain infinite recursive calls safe to use. Go, however, does not implement TCO, and as such a loop should be used instead.

SA6001 – Missing an optimization opportunity when indexing maps by byte slices

Map keys must be comparable, which precludes the use of []byte. This usually leads to using string keys and converting []bytes to strings.

Normally, a conversion of []byte to string needs to copy the data and causes allocations. The compiler, however, recognizes m[string(b)] and uses the data of b directly, without copying it, because it knows that the data can't change during the map lookup. This leads to the counter-intuitive situation that

k := string(b)
println(m[k])
println(m[k])

will be less efficient than

println(m[string(b)])
println(m[string(b)])

because the first version needs to copy and allocate, while the second one does not.

For some history on this optimization, check out commit f5f5a8b6209f84961687d993b93ea0d397f5d5bf.

SA6002 – Storing non-pointer values in sync.Pool allocates memory

A sync.Pool is used to avoid unnecessary allocations and reduce the amount of work the garbage collector has to do.

When passing a value that is not a pointer to a function that accepts an interface, the value needs to be placed on the heap, which means an additional allocation. Slices are a common thing to put in sync.Pools, and they're structs with 3 fields (length, capacity, and a pointer to an array). In order to avoid the extra allocation, one should store a pointer to the slice instead.

See the comments on a Go CL that discuss this problem.

SA6003 – Converting a string to a slice of runes before ranging over it

You may want to loop over the runes in a string. Instead of converting the string to a slice of runes and looping over that, you can loop over the string itself. That is,

for _, r := range s {}

and

for _, r := range []rune(s) {}

will yield the same values. The first version, however, will be faster and avoid unnecessary memory allocations.

Do note that if you are interested in the indices, ranging over a string and over a slice of runes will yield different indices. The first one yields byte offsets, while the second one yields indices in the slice of runes.